This grammar pattern is used with a verb, showing a certain period of time has passed after the performance has been done in the first sentence.
● 저는 결혼한 지 10년 됐어요. (I've been married for 10 years.)
● 한국에 온 지 8개월 됐어요. (It has been 8 months since I came to Korea.)
This grammar pattern, having similar to 'even though', means the result from the first clause would not happen in the second clause even if one presumes that the state or action in the first clause would happen.
● 힘들어도 최선을 다하세요. (Do your best even though it's hard.)
● 제 아버지는 밥을 많이 먹어도 살이 안 쩌요. (My father doesn't get fat even though he eats a lot.)
● 아무리 아파도 회사는 가야 해요. (I have to go to work no matter how much I'm sick.)
This grammar pattern indicates a past experience being used with a verb. If someone haven't had that experience, use ‘-은/ㄴ 적이 없다’.
● 저는 이 노래를 들은 적이 있어요. (I have listened to this song.)
● 제 친구는 중국어를 배운 적이 없어요. (My friend haven't learned Chinese.)
● 한국 음식을 먹은 적이 있어요? (Have you ever eaten Korean food?)
This grammar pattern is used to support the positive statement in the first clause but it describes the opposite statement in the second clause. The subject in the first clause and the second clause is usually the same.
● 제 집은 편하기는 하지만 회사에서 좀 멀어요. (My house is convenient, but it's a little far from the company.)
● 저는 수영을 배우기는 했지만 잘 못해요. (I learnt swimming, but I cannot swim well.)
This grammar pattern is used with a verb to show some background of the second clause. Also, the contents before '-는데, -은데/ㄴ데, -인데' draw out the attention to what comes after the discourse.
● 이 분은 우리 선생님인데 친절한 분이세요. (This is my teacher, and she is kind.)
● 이 가방은 지난주에 샀는데 아주 마음에 들어요. (I bought this bag last week, and I like it.)
This grammar pattern is used with a verb to show experience. It is used with the past tense, and the experience usually doesn't happened by chance.
● 저는 1년 전에 제주도에 가 봤어요. (I've been to Jeju Island last year.)
● 이거 먹어 봤어요? (Have you ever eaten this?)
This grammar pattern is used to prohibit or restrict the permission. When it's used with an adjective, it shows a condition of limitation.
● 죄송하지만 여기에 주차하시면 안 됩니다. (I'm sorry, but you shouldn't park your car here.)
● 운전하는 동안 전화를 하면 안 됩니다. (You shouldn't make a call while driving.)
● 집이 너무 작으면 안 됩니다. (My house shouldn't be too small.)
When this grammar pattern is used with a verb, it means giving a permission to do something. When it's used with an adjective, it shows a sufficient condition. The question form of '-어도/아도/여도 돼요?' can be used.
● 여기에 앉아도 돼요? (Can I sit here?)
● 좀 늦어도 됩니다. (You may be a bit late.)
This grammar pattern is used to provide an information before asking a question. In the second clause, question can be made by considering with the point in the first clause. It serves to make the sentence sound more soft.
● 여기는 아직 봄인데 거기는 어때요? (It's spring here; how about there?)
● 저는 한식을 좋아하는데 혜리 씨가 좋아하는 음식은 뭐예요? (I like Korean food; what is hyeri's favorite food?)
This grammar pattern is used to change an adjective to a verb. This grammar point can only be used with a third person subject. Unless the verbs ‘좋아하다’ or ‘싫어하다’ are used, which can be used in first person context.
● 그 소식을 듣고 마이클 씨가 슬퍼했어요. (Michael was sad when hearing about the news.)
● 엄마는 뱀을 무서워해요. (My mom feels scary of snakes.)
‘-겠-’ convey supposition, a guess, a thought or observation. It can sometimes be translated as 'I think', 'I bet', 'I guess', 'It/this looks ~', 'It must be ~'. This pattern can not be used to express the thoughts or supposition (etc) of a second or third person and must express the thought of the person saying or writing it.
● 내일은 비가 오겠어요. (I bet it's going to rain tomorrow.)
● 맛있겠다! (Looks delicious!)
‘N으로/로' is placed after a noun and is used to show the direction of an action or destination. It 's used with verbs like ’가다(go)‘ or ’오다(come)‘. When the noun ends with a consonant, use '-으로’. When the noun ends with a vowel or a consonant 'ㄹ', use '-로'.
● 앞으로 쭉 가세요. (Go ahead.)
● 이 지하철은 인천으로 갑니까? (Does this train go to Incheon?)
‘-을/ㄹ 것 같다' is placed after a verb or adjective word stem and is used to show the speaker's vague guess being made concerning the future. When the word stem ends with a consonant, use '-을 것 같다’. When it ends with a vowel or a consonant 'ㄹ', use '-ㄹ 것 같다'.
● 이번 시험은 어려울 것 같아요. (I think this text will be hard.)
● 그 사람은 안 올 것 같아요. (I think he will not come.)
‘-을/ㄹ 거예요' is placed after a verb stem and is used to show that the speaker is guessing something. The subject is usually in the third person. When the verb stem ends with a consonant, use '-을 거예요’. When the verb stem ends with a vowel or a consonant 'ㄹ', use '-ㄹ 거예요'.
● 내일은 비가 올 거예요. (It will rains tomorrow.)
● 벌써 10시니까 아마 집에 있을 거예요. (She will be at home because it's 10 o'clock.)
‘-을/ㄹ 거예요' is placed after a verb stem and is used to express the speaker's p[an or will. When the verb stem ends with a consonant, use '-을 거예요’. When the verb stem ends with a vowel or a consonant 'ㄹ', use '-ㄹ 거예요'.
● 주말에 뭐 할 거예요? (What will you do on weekend?)
● 점심을 친구하고 먹을 거예요. (I'm going to eat lunch with my friend.)
'-으려고/려고 하다' indicates the speaker's intention or will, '-으려고 하다' is attached to the verb stem ending in a consonant, and '-려고 하다' is attached to the verb stem ending in a vowel and a consonant 'ㄹ'.
● 저는 오늘 도서관에 가려고 합니다. (I'm going to go to the library.)
● 친구한테 돈을 빌리려고 해요. (I'd like to borrow some money from my friend.)